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for ( [<initialization>] ; [<condition>] ; [<increment>] ) <statement>
The for statement implements an iterative loop.
<condition> is checked before the first entry into the block.
<statement> is executed repeatedly UNTIL the value of <condition> is false.
Before the first iteration of the loop, <initialization> initializes variables for the loop.
After each iteration of the loop, <increments> increments a loop counter. Consequently, j++ is functionally the same as ++j.
In C++, <initialization> can be an expression or a declaration. The scope of any identifier declared within the for loop extends to the end of the control statement only. A variable defined in the for-initialization expression is in scope only within the for-block.
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